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    桑黃的古代本草記載

    發布時間:2022-06-06

      來源:九盛醫學生物

      桑黃,生長在老桑樹上,性平,味甘、辛,歸肝經和腎經,具有活血利水,止帶調經,止久瀉,益氣不饑,輕身強志,逐飲化痰,散結消腫,止痛療傷等功效。
      在中藥寶庫中的桑黃,從秦漢時期起在歷代本草中均有記載。
      一、《神農本草經》
      秦漢時期的《神農本草經》中以“桑耳”的名稱記載為:“桑耳,黑者,主女子漏下赤白汁,血病癥瘕積聚,陰痛,陰陽寒熱無子。五木耳,名檽,益氣不饑,輕身強志。生山谷”。
      二、《名醫別錄》
      南北朝時期的梁代,在陶弘景的《名醫別錄》中為桑耳增加了兩個名稱,即“桑菌”、“木麥夋”,其功效在《神農本草經》的基礎上增加了“治女子崩中帶下,月閉血凝,產后血凝,男子痃癖。”陶弘景結合自己的臨床實踐,在《本草經集注》中對桑耳的功效記載增加了“鼻衄血、婦人崩中”。
      三、《新修本草》
      唐代,在被稱為世界上第一部藥典的《新修本草》中,對“桑黃”的性味、功效及顏色等描述比較詳細,但此時仍以“桑耳”的名字出現。如“桑耳,味甘,有毒。黑者,主女子漏下赤白汁,血病,癥瘕積聚,腹痛,陰陽寒熱無子。療止久泄,益氣不饑。其金色者,療痹飲,積聚,腹病,金瘡。五木耳名檽,益氣不饑,輕身強志。生犍為山谷,六月多雨時采木耳,即曝干。” 
      四、《藥性論》
      唐代甄權的《藥性論》中,把桑耳和桑黃合為一體,認為“桑黃”即“桑耳”,并首次出現了“桑黃”的中藥名稱,并記載為桑黃性平,無毒,與蘇敬《新修本草》中的描述不一致,有其創新性?!端幮哉摗酚涊d“桑耳,使。一名桑臣,又名桑黃。味甘、辛,無毒。能治女子崩中帶下,月閉血凝,產后血凝,男子痃癖,兼療伏血,下赤血。又云木耳,亦可單用,平。”甄權用其臨床實踐證明了中藥桑黃無毒和治病奇效。
      五、《大觀本草》
      宋代唐慎微的《大觀本草》中另有新意,如“以桑耳作羮,空心下飯飽食之,日三食之。待孔卒痛如烏啄,取大小豆各一升,各搗作兩囊之及熱,更互坐之,即瘥”,其功效記載同《新修本草》,并且在此本著作中首次出現描繪“信州桑黃”的圖片,這也是中國歷史上最早的桑黃圖片,顯示出其上有毛茸狀結構。
      六、《本草蒙荃》
      明代陳嘉謨的《本草蒙筌》中記錄了一些有關“桑黃”的新內容,如“古方入劑屢用,一名桑菌,又名桑黃。老樹上多雨即生,軟濕者作葅堪啖,采收剉碎,醇酒煎嘗,散血如神,止血甚捷。黑者主女人癥瘕,崩漏帶下及乳腫暴來; 黃者,治男子癖飲,積聚腹疼,并金瘡初得,若色黃熟陳白,止泄補益元陽。”
      這些古代記載桑黃的書籍只是其中小小的一部分,就足以見得桑黃在古人心中的重要地位了!

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